EFEK WAKTU PENGONTROLAN EVAPORATIVE COOLING TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL BENIH KENTANG AEROPONIK DI DATARAN RENDAH TROPIKA BASAH

Eni Sumarni, Afik Hardanto, Poppy Arsil

Abstract


Suhu udara yang terlalu panas di dalam greenhouse menjadi hambatan pertumbuhan dan hasil produksi benih kentang secara aeroponik di dataran rendah. Aplikasi root zone cooling untuk mengendalikan suhu udara di area perakaran membantu perkembangan umbi benih kentang di dataran rendah. Namun untuk lebih memaksimalkan pengendalian, diperlukan usaha pengendalian suhu udara di area permukaan bagian atas tanaman yang melingkupi daun dan batang tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalam mengetahui durasi waktu pemberian evaporative cooling metode langsung (semburan) terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil benih kentang di dataran rendah tropika basah yang ditanam secara aeroponik. Penelitian dilakukan di greenhouse Fakultas Pertanian, ketinggian ± 115 m dpl. Faktor yang dicoba : 1. Waktu evaporative cooling (WEvap) : WEvap1 (10 menit menyala, mati selama 10 menit), WEvap2 (15 menit menit menyala, mati selama 10 menit), 2. Varietas (V) : V1 (Genotipe 007), V2 (Granola). Parameter pertumbuhan tanaman yang diamati : tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun dan hasil tanaman (jumlah umbi, ukuran umbi, bobot umbi). Data dianalisis dengan grafik untuk mengetahui pola pertumbuhan dan hasilnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian evaporative cooling menyala 10 menit memberikan tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan 15 menit nyala. Jumlah umbi rata-rata pada evaporative cooling dengan waktu 10 menit nyala varietas granola memberikan jumlah umbi tertinggi sebesar 17,5 umbi/tanaman. Bobot umbi tertinggi pertanaman diperoleh dari evaporative cooling dengan waktu 10 menit nyala yaitu varietas granola sebesar 8,4 gram/tanaman atau 2,1 gram per umbi.

Kata Kunci: benih kentang, dataran rendah, evaporative cooling, greenhouse, root zone cooling

 

Temperatures that are too hot in the greenhouse become an obstacle to aeroponic growth and yield of potato seeds in the lowlands. The application of root zone cooling to control air temperature in the rooting area helps develop potato seed tubers in the lowlands. However, to further improve control, it is necessary to control the temperature of the air on the upper surface of plants which are circular in the leaves and stems of plants. The purpose of this study is to study the duration of the direct method of giving evaporative cooling to the growth and yield of potato seeds in wet tropical lowlands that are planted aeroponically. The study was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture greenhouse, height ± 115 m above sea level. Factors tried: 1. Cooling evaporation time (WEvap): WEvap1 (10 minutes turning on, turning off for 10 minutes), WEvap2 (15 minutes turning on, turning off for 10 minutes), 2. Variety (V): V1 (Genotype 007) , V2 (Granola). Plant growth parameters that are rotated: plant height, number of leaves and crop yields (number of tubers, tuber size, tuber weights). Data were analyzed using graphs to determine growth patterns and yields. The results showed that the cooling evaporation aid was on for 10 minutes giving higher plant height and number of leaves compared to 15 minutes on. The average number of tubers in evaporative cooling with 10 minutes of flame granola varieties gave the highest number of tubers of 17.5 bulbs / plant. Weight for plants Obtained from cooling evaporation with a 10-minute flame on the granola variety of 8.4 grams / plant or 2.1 grams per tuber. 


Key words: potato seed, lowlands, evaporative cooling, greenhouse, root zone cooling


Full Text:

PDF

References


Chauhan, P.M., W.S. Kim, J.H. Lieth, E. 2003. Combined Efect of Whitening and Ventilation Methods on Microclimate and Transpiration in Rose Greenhouse. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage Technologies and Systems, Indore, India, 22–24 March.

Davies, P.A., G. Zaragoza. 2019. Ideal performance of a self-cooling greenhouse. Appl. Therm. Eng. 149: 502 – 511

Gunawan dan Afrizal D. 2009. Teknologi aeroponik terobosan perbanyakan cepat benih kentang. Iptek Hortikultura 5: 1 – 9.

Impron, I., S. Hemming, G.P.A. Bot. 2008. Effects of cover properties, ventilation rate, and crop leaf area on tropical greenhouse climate. Biosyst. Eng. 99: 553 – 564

Ishii, M., S. Sase, H. Moriyama, L. Okushima, A. Ikeguchi, M. Hayashi, K. Kurata, C. Kubota, M. Kacira, G.A. Giacomelli, G.A. 2016. Controlled Environment Agriculture for E_ective Plant Production Systems in a Semiarid Greenhouse. Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. (JARQ) 50: 101 – 113

Lovatt, J.L. 1997. Potato Information Kit. The Agrilink Series. The State of Queensland, Departemen of Primary Industries. Australia.

Poku, R., T.W. Oyinki, E.A. Ogbonnaya. 2017. The Effects of Evaporative Cooling in Tropical Climate. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 5(4): 145 – 150

Rusten, E. 1985. Understanding Evaporative Cooling, Volunteers in Technical Assistance. Technical Paper #35. VITA, Virginia, USA.

Smith, O. 1968. Potatoes: Production, Storing, Processing. The Avi Publishing Company, Inc. Westport, Connecticut.

Sumarni, E., N. Farid, Darjanto, Ardiansyah and L. Soesanto. 2019. Effect of electrical conductivity (EC) in the nutrition solution on aeroponic potato seed production with application of root zone cooling in tropical lowland, Indonesia. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal Open access at http://www.cigrjournal.org. 21(2): 70 – 78

Sumarni, E., A. Hardanto, P. Arsil. 2019b. Produksi benih kentang dataran rendah dengan aeroponik sistem root zone cooling dan evaporative cooling. Laporan Kemajuan Riset Terapan. Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Purwokerto. 50 halaman.

Sumarni, E., G. H. Sumartono, and S. K. Saptomo. 2013a. Aplikasi zone cooling pada sistem aeroponik kentang di dataran medium tropika basah. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian 1(1): 99 – 106

Sumarni, E., H. Suhardiyanto, K. Boro Seminar and S. K. Saptomo. 2013b. Aplikasi pendinginan zona perakaran (root zone cooling) pada produksi benih kentang menggunakan sistem aeroponik. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) 41(2): 154 – 159

Sumarni, E., A. Sudarmaji, H. Suhardiyanto and S. K. Saptomo. 2016. Produksi benih kentang sistem aeroponik dan root zone cooling dengan pembedaan tekanan pompa di dataran rendah. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) 44(3): 299 – 305

Sushmita, M.D., D. Hemant, V. Radhacharan. 2008. Vegetables in Evaporative Cool Chamber and in Ambient, Macmillan Publi. Ltd., London and Basingstoke. 1 – 10 pp.

Villarreal Guerrero, F., M. Kacira, E. Fitz-Rodríguez, R. Linker, C. Kubota, G.A. Giacomelli, G.A., A. Arbel, A. 2012. Simulated performance of a greenhouse cooling control strategy with natural ventilation and fog cooling. Biosyst. Eng. 111: 217 – 228

Xu, J., Y. Li, R. Wang, W. Liu, P. Zhou. 2015. Experimental performance of evaporative cooling pad systems in greenhouses in humid subtropical climates. Appl. Energy 138: 291 – 301


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.