PENGARUH EKSTRAK JINTAN HITAM (Nigella sativa) TERHADAP TNF-α MENCIT Balb-c YANG DIINFEKSI MRSA

Galuh Yulieta Nitihapsari, Octavia Permata Sari, Miko Ferine

Abstract


Pendahuluan: Meningkatnya fenomena resistensi bakteri terhadap berbagai jenis antibiotik salah satu contohnya MRSA (Metisilin Resisten Staphylococcus aureus) menjadi masalah yang serius. MRSA dapat menyebabkan penyakit meningitis, impetigo, abses, dan sepsis yang mengancam nyawa. Hal ini mendorong pentingnya pencarian herbal yang memiliki efek anti bakterial melalui modulasi sistem imun. Respons imun diaktifkan saat terjadi invasi bakteri,yaitu ketika peptidoglikan S. aureus sebagai antigen masuk ke dalam tubuh akan menstimulasi fagositosis oleh makrofag dan produksi sitokin IL-1, IL-6, dan TNF α yang akan mengawali proses migrasi leukosit menuju jaringan untuk mengeliminasi bakteri. Nigella sativa (NS) diketahui memiliki efek antimikroba MRSA tetapi belum pernah diteliti sitokin yang berperan, sehingga diharapkan pada penelitian ini dapat lebih mengetahui peran Nigella sativa dalam mengatasi infeksi MRSA melalui peningkatan sitokin TNFα. Tujuan: Membuktikan efek ekstrak Nigella sativa terhadap TNF-α. Metode: Desain penelitian ini adalah “Post test only control group design”. Populasi studi menggunakan 25 ekor mencit balbc jantan yang diinfeksi MRSA dan dibagi secara acak dalam lima kelompok yaitu kelompok K (mencit diinfeksi MRSA tanpa diterapi), P1 (mencit diterapi ekstrak Nigella sativa 0,05 ml selama 7 hari kemudian diinfeksi MRSA), P2 (mencit diterapi ekstrak NS 0,25 ml selama 7 hari kemudian diinfeksi MRSA), P3 (mencit diterapi ekstrak NS 0,5 ml selama 7 hari kemudian diinfeksi MRSA), dan P4 (mencit diterapi ekstrak NS 0,75 ml selama 7 hari kemudian diinfeksi MRSA). TNF-α dinilai dengan ELISA. Uji statistik menggunakan uji One Way Annova dilanjutkan uji Post Hoc LSD. Hasil: Hasil rerata kadar TNF-α pada kelompok K = 38,01 ± 2,68 ; P1 = 35,44 ± 3,52 ; P2 = 39,11 ± 7,10 ; P3 = 39,47 ± 3,17 ; dan P4 = 47,29 ± 3,17. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara kelompok K-P4 (p=0,011), P1-P4 (p=0,001), P2-P4 (p=0,018), dan P3-P4 (p=0,031). Kesimpulan: Ekstrak Nigella sativa seiring dengan pertambahan dosis terbukti efektif dalam meningkatkan kadar TNF-α mencit balb-c yang diinfeksi MRSA.

Kata kunci: Nigella sativa, TNF-α, MRSA


Background: The increasing phenomenon of bacterial resistance to various types of antibiotics, for example MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a serious problem. MRSA can cause meningitis, impetigo, abscesses, and sepsis that are life threatening. This encourages the importance of finding herbs that have anti-bacterial effects through immune system modulation. The immune response is activated when there is a bacterial invasion, when peptidoglycan of S.aureus as an antigen enters the body will stimulate phagocytosis by macrophages and the production of cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF α which will initiate the migration of leukocytes into the tissues to eliminate bacteria. Nigella sativa (NS) is known to have an antimicrobial effect of MRSA but the role of cytokines have never been studied, so it is hoped that in this study the role of Nigella sativa in overcoming MRSA infections through increased cytokine TNF-α can be known. Objective: To prove the effect of Nigella sativa extract on TNF-α. Method: The design of this study was "Post test only control group design". The study population used 25 male balb-c mice infected with MRSA and were randomly divided into five groups namely group K (mice infected with MRSA without being treated), P1 (mice treated with 0.05 ml Nigella sativa extract for 7 days then infected with MRSA), P2 (mice treated with 0.25 ml NS extract for 7 days then infected with MRSA), P3 (mice treated with 0.5 ml NS extract for 7 days then infected with MRSA), and P4 (mice treated with 0.75 ml NS extract for 7 days then infected MRSA). TNF-α was assessed by ELISA. Statistical tests used the One Way Annova test followed by the Post Hoc LSD test. Results: Mean TNF-α levels in group K = 38.01 ± 2.68; P1 = 35.44 ± 3.52; P2 = 39.11 ± 7.10; P3 = 39.47 ± 3.17; and P4 = 47.29 ± 3.17. There were significant differences between the K-P4 groups (p = 0.011), P1-P4 (p = 0.001), P2-P4 (p = 0.018), and P3-P4 (p = 0.031). Conclusion: Nigella sativa extract along with increasing dosage proved effective in increasing TNF-α levels of balb-c mice infected by MRSA.

Key words: Nigella sativa, TNF-α, MRSA


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